Paths to Literacy

for students who are blind or visually impaired

Overview of Math Literacy

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What is Mathematical Literacy?

Mathematical Literacy includes numeracy (the ability to recognize numerals), a basic number sense, and a grasp of simple mathematical concepts.  Students who are blind or visually impaired often do not have the same exposure to numbers or mathematical concepts as their sighted peers and, as a result, they may be behind their age level peers in school.


Boy with glasses tactually examines a manipulative illustrating geometrical shapes.


Nemeth Code for Braille Readers

Just as sighted students must see numerals and basic mathematical symbols (+, -, =, > <) before they begin to use them, so too must students who are braille readers have exposure to Nemeth Code, which is the braille code used to transcribe mathematics, science, and other technical information.  For more information about Nemeth Code, see the following:

Teaching Nemeth Code,  Project Math Access

Teaching Nemeth Code, Susan Osterhaus, TSBVI

Math Education and Nemeth Code: Nemeth & Adventitiously Blind High School Students

Texas School for the Blind, See/Hear (Fall 1997). This article from the See/Hear Newsletter presents questions, answers, and differing opinions about the use of Nemeth Code in math education.