Paths to Literacy

for students who are blind or visually impaired

Blog Posts

Two boys hanging ornaments on Christmas tree
Posted by Liamsmom
I am a mother of two sweet boys.  My oldest, Liam, is 6 years old.  He is deafblind.  My youngest, Finn, is 3 years old.  He has typical vision and hearing.  I really look forward to the Christmas season.  I enjoy finding...



Hand of one person resting on side of open hand of another person
Posted by Chris Montgomery
How do we join the person who is deafblind in sharing their world, a world experienced through touch? How do we arouse curiosity? What is the path to bonding? Why must we recognize and affirm their communication before a formal language can be co-created?...



Orange with print and braille labels
Posted by Flavia Moreira
Students with visual impairment and multiple disabilities generally need concrete information that favors the understanding of the most diverse concepts and information. They also need literacy support. Visual impairment and multiple disabilities refer to...



A young girl uses a Perkins braillewriter
Posted by Charlotte Cushman
Professor Cheryl Kamei-Hannan and a team from CalState LA have created Braille Brain, which is a training program funded by the US Department of Education, Rehabilitation Services Agency. The overall goal of the project is to promote literacy and STEM...



outline of fireman and two fireman hats with colored overlay
Posted by Beth Borysewicz
Early elementary classrooms in schools all across the United States are learning about FIRE SAFETY this month! Fire Safety from the perspective of a typically sighted child is very different than the perspective of a child without any vision, limited or low...



Cover slide: Five Tips for Better Digital Classroom Accessibility
Posted by KimAvila
Tip 1: Provide actual text, not images of text Tip 2: Tip 2: The Four C’s Tip 3: Multimedia, Captioning, Interpreter, and Description Tip 4: Document and Slide Accessibility Tip 5: Advocate for...



3D-printed braille pladoh stampers
Posted by Charlotte Cushman
Use a 3D printer to create your own braille playdoh hand-held stampers. Amanda Crayton created files that are free to download the from Thingiverse to make each letter of the English alphabet a-z in braille. The top of each stamper has the raised dots of...



Screenshot of homepage of Active Learning Space
Posted by Charlotte Cushman
If you are a teacher or parent of a child with complex learning needs or significant multiple disabilities, you may already be familiar with Dr. Lilli Nielsen's Active Learning approach.  If not, we invite you to visit our sister website the ...



Boy's hands on textured symbols on Velcro board
Posted by Ann Adkins
Background I first met Aidan in 2014 during an onsite visit to Frenship ISD from the Outreach Program of the Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI). His Teacher of Students with Visual Impairment (TVI), Sherry Airhart, had requested a...



A boy reading text on a slant board
Posted by Judy Endicott
“When you’ve met one child with CVI, you’ve met one child with CVI.”  -- Gordon Dutton While the specifics mentioned below were developed to meet the needs of my grandson in conjunction with his CVI Range assessment (Roman...



Materials in CVI adaptation toolbox
Posted by Lisha Yochimowitz
As a TVI working with students with cortical visual impairment, I spend all day making CVI adaptations. While each student is unique, I have developed a tool box for CVI adaptations with some of the basic materials that are helpful for adapting materials for...



Ruler with L-shaped support peg
Posted by Jacqueline Dettore
Starting as a first year TVI in the middle of a pandemic was not something I anticipated when starting this career. As I began my new position, I wanted to remotely assess students as accurately as possible without requiring assistance from families or...



A young girl examines a tactile book with text in English and Spanish.
Posted by Conchita Hernandez
Statistics on English Language Learners in the United States About 11% of our general education students are English Language Learners (ELL) or bilingual.  TVIs generally do not feel competent in working with this population....



First/then schedule with pink stuffed animal and chapstick
Posted by Chevonne Sutter
First / Then Schedules can be used to help individuals understand what activity they are expected to be engaging in currently and what activity to anticipate next. They are a structured method of communicating about what is happening now and what is going to...



Scrabble tiles spelling out "RESILIENCY"
Posted by Marnee Loftin
Tim tries to read a story aloud for his class. He has difficulty with this activity and asks the teacher for help. Once she gives the help, he continues to read. Sara stumbles while reading the same book to classmates. Even after the teacher provides help,...



Sketch of dog's head
Posted by Liz Eagan
Letter writing can be a way for students to feel safe asking questions, while working on braille skills in a real world activity.  One of my students started corresponding with the speech therapist's dog, which gave him a chance to practice...



A girl writing on a Perkins braillewriter
Posted by Laurie Hudson
Laurie Hudson (Consultant, Perkins International)  Deborah Gleason (Co-author, and Director Asia & Pacific Region, Perkins International) This is the second of two parts.  You can find Part 1 here. We at Perkins International (PI) are...



Young woman using a braillewriter while her teacher looks on
Posted by Siena Capistrano
There have been a number of stories shared here on Paths to Literacy by the mother of my student, Kara, who is from the Philippines and I wanted to share my perspective as her TVI.  Her earlier stories can be found below: Kara’s Turning...



ear with superimposed face talking
Posted by Maurice Belote
What is Central Auditory Processing Disorder and Why Is It Important?  It is said that central auditory processing disorder is to hearing what cerebral visual impairment or CVI is to vision. Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is defined as...



Posted by Megan Chapman
How many different types of paper are our students asked to write on in school? The worksheets look different, the lines look different, the pages are cluttered, and our students are trying their best but many times struggle to keep their writing within...



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