Paths to Literacy

for students who are blind or visually impaired


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Below are posts related to research.


A Case Study of Tack Tiles Literacy Instruction for a Student with Multiple Disabilities Including Congenital Blindness

By Charlotte Cushman
Research study on the use of tack-tiles to teach braille to a student who is blind with additional disabilities
Girl working on a laptop

Schools Which Adopt Audio Textbook Services Outperform Others in State Assessments of Math Proficiency Among Students With IEPs.

By RJSitten
Research on students with disabilities using audio books shows that they have higher test scores in reading and math.
AEM logo

Audio-Supported Reading for Students Who are Blind or Visually Impaired

By Charlotte Cushman
Introduction to the use of audio-supported reading and its use with students who are blind or visually impaired
Image of colorful silhouettes of children's heads

What is Literacy? The Power of a Definition

By Charlotte Cushman
The authors base their literacy definition on the assumption that all individuals in need of extensive supports are capable of benefitting from literacy instruction.
Slide from powerpoint presentation

Applying the Results of the ABC Braille Study to Real-Life Teaching: One Teacher's Interpretation

By Charlotte Cushman
This presentation emphasizes the need for teachers of students with visual impairments to focus on the full range of reading processes when they are working with young braille readers.
A girl works on a braille worksheet while her teacher looks on.

Teaching Early Braille Literacy Skills within a Stimulus Equivalence Paradigm to Children with Degenerative Visual Impairments

By Charlotte Cushman
Research study evaluating an instructive procedure for teaching early braille-reading skills with 4 school-aged children with degenerative visual impairments
One hand reading braille

Studies of Braille Reading Rates and Implications for the Unified English Braille Code

By Charlotte Cushman
Reading rate data was collected from both print and braille readers in the areas of mathematics and literary braille.
Elementary school age boy reads a braille book

Teaching and Assessing the Appropriateness of Uncontracted Braille: Research Report

By Charlotte Cushman
This study founds that teaching uncontracted braille requires different strategies and materials than does teaching contracted braille.
A boy uses a braillewriter.

A review of the literature into effective practice in teaching literacy through braille

By Charlotte Cushman
Literature review and examination of evidence-based good practice in the area of teaching literacy through braille.
Teacher signs to student while working on money activity.

Web-Based Resources for Mathematics: Articles Related to Mathematics Education

By Charlotte Cushman
Collection of web-based resources on mathematics education
Boy works on mathematics problem.

Working Memory and Math Problem Solving by Blind Middle and High School Students: Implications for Universal Access

By Charlotte Cushman
This project investigates how blind students solve math word problems varying in text length and grade-level readability, in the context of existing web-based tutorial.
Mathematical formula

MathML Software Research Projects

By Charlotte Cushman
This page from the W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) site presents a list of current research projects in making mathematics more accessible to people who are blind or visually impaired.
Two boys work together on a math problem.

Current Research in Math for VI Students

By Charlotte Cushman
This page from the TSBVI website lists research in making mathematics more accessible to people who are blind or visually impaired.
Two boys examine mathematical manipulatives.

American Printing House for the Blind Mathematics Research Analysis

By Charlotte Cushman
Research study on mathematics education for students who are blind or visually impaired
Color graphic of experiment

Relating Braille Reading Difficulties to Developmental Dyslexia: First Empirical Evidence

By Charlotte Cushman
This study aims to find out whether the correlational and causal pattern between temporal processing, speech perception, phonological processing and reading is the same both in print & braille readers
Young child touches tactile book with adult guidance.

Reading Aloud to Children: The Evidence

By Charlotte Cushman
Ample research demonstrates that reading aloud to young children promotes the development of language and other emergent literacy skills, which in turn help children prepare for school.
A boy wearing headphones sits at a computer.

Discrimination and Comprehension of Synthetic Speech by Students with Visual Impairments: The Case of Similar Acoustic Patterns

By Charlotte Cushman
Research study examining the intelligibility of synthetic speech
A girl with glasses reads a braille book.

Coping Strategies in Reading: Multi-readers in the Norwegian General Education System

By Charlotte Cushman
Six primary school–aged braille students were taught to name 4 to 10 braille letters as phonemes and another 4 to 10 braille letters as graphemes
A teenage boy sits at a computer.

How Speech-Feedback and Word-Prediction Software Can Help Students Write

By Charlotte Cushman
Case study is described that examines the experience of a 7th grader with learning disabilities in written expression and his use of word prediction and speech feedback software during journal writing
A teenage boy sits at a computer.

Beginning to Write with Word Processing: Integrating Writing Process and Technology in a Primary Classroom

By Charlotte Cushman
Examination of writing behaviors of first grade children