Paths to Literacy

for students who are blind or visually impaired

Considerations for States Providing Materials in Braille

Hands reading braille book

The National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) released a brief called Considerations for States Providing Materials in Braille. The purpose of this 8-page brief, which was written by Frances Mary D’Andrea, Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, is to provide information on, and recommendations for, appropriate braille materials for students.

The brief examines some of the most common questions and concerns about UEB (Unified English Braille) and EBAE (English Braille American Edition), such as:

  • Who is using UEB?
  • What is the current status of UEB in the U.S.?
  • Comparison of EBAE and UEB
  • Understanding UEB and Nemeth Code
  • Comparison of UEB and Nemeth Numbers
  • Misconceptions and Facts About UEB and Nemeth Code
  • What the Law Says about Braille and Accommodations 
  • What Should States Do?


  1. States should be aware that both UEB and Nemeth are official codes for use in the U.S. for transcription of technical materials. 
  2. Materials in EBAE should be phased out and new materials should no longer be produced in this code.
  3. States should support math instruction in UEB or in Nemeth Code based on the IEP team’s decision.  
  4. States should provide math and science materials in both UEB and in Nemeth within UEB contexts as needed by students.

Cover of NCEO Brief Number 19, October 2019

Posted on October 23, 2019
Updated on: October 24, 2019