Paths to Literacy

for students who are blind or visually impaired

Who's Who in Braille

Louis Braille invented a code that uses raised dots to represent letters and numbers. It is a touch system used by people who are blind to read and write.  Braille developed the code in his home country of France in the 1820's.  He used varying arrangements of six dots in a cell that looks like this:

This graphic shows the braille cell.  It is 2 vertical lines of 3 dots each.

Read a story about Louis Braille published in the Los Angeles Times in January 2005.

Dr. Abraham Nemeth is a blind man who invented a mathematical braille code which is named after him. He invented the Nemeth code because he needed a way to represent numbers and other mathematical symbols when he was studying and teaching mathematics.


Dr. Abraham Nemeth and Dr. Rosenblum sitting together at a dinner table.

Dr. Abraham Nemeth visits with Dr. Rosenblum (developer of the Dots for Families web site)  when Dr. Nemeth received the Exemplary Advocate Award from the Division on Visual Impairment of the Council for Exceptional Children.


Helen Keller is another famous person you may think about when you see braille.  She lost both her vision and hearing after an illness at the age of 18 months.  Helen Keller became an extraordinary woman who wrote many books and articles and spoke to people around the world as an advocate for people who are deaf and blind.