Paths to Literacy

for students who are blind or visually impaired

  • Young girl wearing hearing aids points to picture symbols with her teacher.Multiple Disabilities and Deafblindness

    Literacy includes recognizing objects, pictures, or other symbols, and using them to communicate. Making choices, anticipating events, following simple recipes, creating or "reading" lists, and other forms of self-expression are all part of functional literacy.
  • Emergent LiteracyGirl painting with broccoli

    Language skills and concept development are the foundation of literacy. These begin at birth and must be well-established before formal instruction in print or braille begins.

  • General LiteracyTwo girls look at an iPad.

    Speaking, listening, object communication, sign language, concept development, and an understanding of one's environment and experiences are all part of a more inclusive view of literacy.

  • Learning Media Assessment (LMA)Young child with curly hair turns the page of a book with a picture of a duck and the letter "D".

    The Learning Media Assessment (LMA) offers a framework for determining the best instructional medium for a given student, such as braille, print, dual media (both print and braille), auditory, tactile or some combination.

  • BrailleHands reading a braille book with another text book and reader in the background.

    Braille is a code used by people who are blind or visually impaired to read and write. It is a tactile system through which letters and words are represented using raised dots.

  • PrintBoy with glasses using magnifier to read print

    There are a variety of ways in which students with low vision can access print, and often they will use different strategies in different situations.

  • WritingStudent using a braille notetaker

    Writing includes both the process of writing (handwriting, typing, braille), as well as the content of the message being expressed. It can also include pictures, objects, and tactile symbols.

  • Dual MediaGirl with glasses types on a keyboard in front of a computer screen with a refreshable braille display to her left.

    Dual Media is the use of both print and braille as modes for reading and writing. Some eye conditions in which there is a gradual loss of vision may be a factor in choosing this option.

  • Struggling ReadersStudent using Wilson Reading System in braille

    Struggling readers may have learning disabilities, such as dyslexia. Emotional and behavioral challenges, such as anxiety or ADHD, may affect also literacy skills.

  • English Language Learners (ELL)Young girl faces instructor grasping her hands and standing close together

    Students with limited English proficiency may need additional support to develop English language literacy. Instructional strategies depend on whether the student is already proficient in another language.

  • Auditory StrategiesBoy listening through a tube

    Definitions of literacy have expanded to include auditory skills as another type of literacy. Many students with visual impairments access information from text through auditory means.

  • Math LiteracyBoy using abacus with teacher

    Mathematical Literacy includes numeracy (the ability to recognize numerals), a basic number sense, and a grasp of simple mathematical concepts.

Multiple Disabilities image

Welcome Parents!

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Get started here with questions about literacy and your baby or toddler.

Playing with Words

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Collaborative approach to play-based storytelling with students who are blind or visually impaired with additional disabilities, including autism or deafblindness.

Training for Gen Ed

a child reading zoomed in text on a tablet

These 11 self-paced modules are designed for gen. ed. teachers and others to learn basic information about students with visual impairments.

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Parent Posts

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By: Diane Brauner
There are numerous  “Screen Sharing” apps available.  This...
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Tutors, Teachers also need some 'bases or introduction...

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