A girl uses a refreshable braille display with a laptop computer.

Tips and Strategies

Create a literacy rich environment

Literacy happens throughout the day in both formal and informal ways.  Create a literacy rich environment where children can observe print, braille and other formats in use, participate in routines and functional tasks, and communicate with others to develop literacy skills at home, at school, and in the community.

Literacy Foundations

Learn to read before reading to learn

Many aspects of reading and writing are the same for all children, regardless of vision, age, or ability level. All children must learn to read before they can read to learn. Key literacy foundations apply, such as comprehension, fluency, phonics, and vocabulary. Here are some selected reading resources that are relevant to this population. 

A young girl looking at a picture book
A girl points to a communication system outdoors with her teacher.

Tip Sheets

Ideas for teachers and parents

Browse our selection of tip sheets, from introducing braille to a young child who is blind to improving instruction for English learners; teaching number concepts to making books meaningful and accessible; and working with students with multiple disabilities to technology for college-bound braille readers. 

Tools for general education teachers

Explore basic introductory information about having a student with visual impairments in your classroom.  Browse our on-demand training offering 11 short videos on topics such as teaming, adapting materials, braille essentials, assistive technology and more. Take quizzes to test your knowledge and find new resources to help support your students!