Paths to Literacy

for students who are blind or visually impaired

Blog Posts

Below are recently created blog posts.



Cover slide: Five Tips for Better Digital Classroom Accessibility
By KimAvila
Tip 1: Provide actual text, not images of text Tip 2: Tip 2: The Four C’s Tip 3: Multimedia, Captioning, Interpreter, and Description Tip 4: Document and Slide Accessibility Tip 5: Advocate for...



3D-printed braille pladoh stampers
By Charlotte Cushman
Use a 3D printer to create your own braille playdoh hand-held stampers. Amanda Crayton created files that are free to download the from Thingiverse to make each letter of the English alphabet a-z in braille. The top of each stamper has the raised dots of...



Screenshot of homepage of Active Learning Space
By Charlotte Cushman
If you are a teacher or parent of a child with complex learning needs or significant multiple disabilities, you may already be familiar with Dr. Lilli Nielsen's Active Learning approach.  If not, we invite you to visit our sister website the ...



Boy's hands on textured symbols on Velcro board
By Ann Adkins
Background I first met Aidan in 2014 during an onsite visit to Frenship ISD from the Outreach Program of the Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI). His Teacher of Students with Visual Impairment (TVI), Sherry Airhart, had requested a...



A boy reading text on a slant board
By Judy Endicott
“When you’ve met one child with CVI, you’ve met one child with CVI.”  -- Gordon Dutton While the specifics mentioned below were developed to meet the needs of my grandson in conjunction with his CVI Range assessment (Roman...



Materials in CVI adaptation toolbox
By Lisha Yochimowitz
As a TVI working with students with cortical visual impairment, I spend all day making CVI adaptations. While each student is unique, I have developed a tool box for CVI adaptations with some of the basic materials that are helpful for adapting materials for...



Ruler with L-shaped support peg
By Jacqueline Dettore
Starting as a first year TVI in the middle of a pandemic was not something I anticipated when starting this career. As I began my new position, I wanted to remotely assess students as accurately as possible without requiring assistance from families or...



A young girl examines a tactile book with text in English and Spanish.
By Conchita Hernandez
Statistics on English Language Learners in the United States About 11% of our general education students are English Language Learners (ELL) or bilingual.  TVIs generally do not feel competent in working with this population....



First/then schedule with pink stuffed animal and chapstick
By Chevonne Sutter
First / Then Schedules can be used to help individuals understand what activity they are expected to be engaging in currently and what activity to anticipate next. They are a structured method of communicating about what is happening now and what is going to...



Scrabble tiles spelling out "RESILIENCY"
By Marnee Loftin
Tim tries to read a story aloud for his class. He has difficulty with this activity and asks the teacher for help. Once she gives the help, he continues to read. Sara stumbles while reading the same book to classmates. Even after the teacher provides help,...



Sketch of dog's head
By Liz Eagan
Letter writing can be a way for students to feel safe asking questions, while working on braille skills in a real world activity.  One of my students started corresponding with the speech therapist's dog, which gave him a chance to practice...



A girl writing on a Perkins braillewriter
By Laurie Hudson
Laurie Hudson (Consultant, Perkins International)  Deborah Gleason (Co-author, and Director Asia & Pacific Region, Perkins International) This is the second of two parts.  You can find Part 1 here. We at Perkins International (PI) are...



Young woman using a braillewriter while her teacher looks on
By Siena Capistrano
There have been a number of stories shared here on Paths to Literacy by the mother of my student, Kara, who is from the Philippines and I wanted to share my perspective as her TVI.  Her earlier stories can be found below: Kara’s Turning...



ear with superimposed face talking
By Maurice Belote
What is Central Auditory Processing Disorder and Why Is It Important?  It is said that central auditory processing disorder is to hearing what cerebral visual impairment or CVI is to vision. Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is defined as...



PenFriend set up with braille cards and tactile symbols
By Julianne Lemman
What is PenFriend? The PenFriend is a voice labeling system that uses a simple device to create recordings associated with sticker labels. The user taps a sticker with the PenFriend, makes a voice recording, then the PenFriend saves the voice recording...



Placing an item in a bag
By Flavia Moreira
Children with multiple disabilities and visual impairments face difficulties in accessing information and often have limited communication. These children are part of a general heterogeneous group, with visual impairment (blindness or low vision) being a...



"I see the ball," with yellow outline and picture of beachball
By Beth Borysewicz
This presentation and step-by-step instruction was created to assist a Kindergarten team of teachers, as well as the student’s parent, as the child was beginning to learn his sight words. I created this to assist the team and show the process of...



Pink background with yellow ducks
By Adam Wilton
An animated PowerPoint story is designed to enhance the literacy experience by using movement and color to make a simple story more engaging for children who benefit from and qualify for alternate format literacy materials.  It takes some time and effort...



Big and small raised shaped
By Allison Mello
I am a braillist, and this semester I have been working with a TVI in supporting pre-braille skills in a new preschool student. I am also at the end of my first year of grad school to become a TVI, so prior to this semester I had no experience teaching the...



Braillewriter with green vertical separators
By Charlotte Cushman
Many young children and beginning braille users struggle to keep their fingers on the correct keys when using a braillewriter.  While we always want to encourage them to keep their fingers in the correct place, sometimes it's helpful to create ways...



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